Sports wear originated in the mid-19th century with the increasing popularity of sports in Europe. After the 20th century, the variety of sports wear continues to increase and becomes increasingly casual and everyday. Sports wear is mainly divided into two types: professional sports wear and amateur casual sports wear, with the latter becoming a daily sport style. In recent years, national health has become an important strategy, and the number of people participating in sports has been increasing year by year. The industry of sports wear and leisure wear has also developed well. The main characteristics of sports and leisure apparel are convenient for movement, easy to wear and take off, moisture-wicking, comfortable, and suitable for various daily activities.
When designing clothing, designers need to consider multiple aspects. Collagen fiber raw materials can be biodegradable, recyclable, and have a small environmental impact. Currently, sports and fitness have become a healthy lifestyle, with sports wear, yoga clothes, and other close-fitting clothing having upward development opportunities. Therefore, the functionality and technical feasibility of collagen fabric will be analyzed below.
Collagen fiber is obtained from the bodies of naturally grown animals and is the most widely distributed protein in animal bodies. It belongs to animal fibers, is biodegradable, has extremely high tensile strength, good durability performance, and high moisture absorption. Collagen protein fiber has the function of nourishing and repairing, is similar to human skin, and the main component of collagen protein in cowhide is about 85%. Sports wear made from collagen fabric has the effect of nourishing the skin and anti-wrinkle. Collagen fiber is breathable, moisture-absorbing, and bacteria-resistant. Researchers have tested the antibacterial and antifungal properties of collagen fibers, showing strong suppression against pathogens with high toughness and mechanical strength. Compared with common natural fibers such as cotton, hemp, silk, and wool, it has better flame retardancy.
First, the impurities and hair of cowhide need to be removed, and the collagen extraction method is generally a combination of physical and chemical methods. Physical methods include drying and loosening and extraction, while wet methods involve pouring crushed materials and water into a beater to extract the fiber. Chemical extraction methods, such as neutral salt method, acid method, alkali method, enzyme method, and acid-enzyme mixing method, can be used for purification. Cowhide collagen protein was hydrolyzed with trypsin, resulting in easy operation and minimal pollution. The surface of collagen fiber is rough and loose, and spinning requires blending or graft modification with other molecules. The net is reinforced by repeatedly piercing it with a needle. Under the international promotion of environmental protection, biodegradable textile materials still have development potential.
These abundant and inexpensive scraps of cowhide should be used rationally. Based on the current trend of beauty, health, and food, the demand for collagen protein is increasing day by day, and even showing an imbalance between supply and demand. Cowhide scraps contain rich collagen protein, and the efficient and environmentally friendly method of extracting collagen protein from cowhide waste is a green natural fiber. Its application in the textile industry can reduce costs and have environmental significance, showing a broad prospect.